The employer must, in accordance with Zakonom o varnosti in zdravju pri delu (ZVZD-1) and other regulations to ensure the safety and health of workers at work.
The safety and health of workers and other persons present in the work process is ensured by:
- it avoids the dangers,
- assess the risks,
- manages hazards at source,
- adapts work to an individual,
- adapts to technical progress,
- Replace dangerously with non-hazardous or less hazardous,
- develops a comprehensive security policy,
- gives priority to collective security measures against individual,
- gives workers appropriate guidance,
- informs and trains workers.
The employer must recognize all workplace risks. For each workplace, it must produce a written risk assessment in which it identifies the risks, determine which of the workers could be exposed to the danger, decide whether the risks are acceptable and introduce and implement measures to eliminate them.
Measures can be technical or organizational.
- An example of a technical measure: replacing too noisy work equipment with less noise.
- An example of an organizational measure: the preparation of internal rules on access to hazardous areas and the designation of these areas with security signs.
Measures depend on risk assessment in the work environment. The risk assessment is influenced by the type of activity and the size of the company. The exception is primarily the self-employed.
|Number of employees / measures||Risk assessment with a safety statement||Safety training at work||Preventive medical examination||Training in fire protection|
|Self-employed||Yes, but it can be assessed by itself (if there are no risks, this is stated in the statement)||Not necessary (if there are no risks)||Not necessary (if there are no risks)||Not necessary (if there are no risks)|
If you are self-employed and you estimate that there are no risks in your work environment, you do not need to undergo training in occupational health and safety, fire safety, as well as preventive medical examination. You must, however, sign a statement that you can compile yourself in any form so that there are no risks in your work environment. Save this statement and show it whenever you are visiting a worker’s inspection.
However, if you are self-employed and find that there are risks of accidents, occupational diseases and work-related illnesses, you need to prepare a written safety statement with a risk assessment and establish measures to ensure safety and health at work.
Risk assessment and safety statement
The risk assessment is the basis for the prevention of accidents at work and the deterioration of health.
Risk assessment is a process by which we evaluate the risks to the safety and health of workers on the workplace. The risk assessment is a systematic overview of all aspects of the work in which we assess:
- what can cause damage or damage,
- whether the risks can be eliminated or not,
- what preventive or safety measures are or should be put in place to control risks.
The purpose of the risk assessment is to enable the employer to take the measures necessary to ensure the safety and health of workers.
How do we assess the risk?
There are several ways and methodologies for risk assessment.
Here is a simple example that fits most of the small and medium-sized businesses:
Step 1: Identify hazards and people at risk
In the workplace, find everything that could cause an injury, and find out which workers might be exposed to hazards.
Step 2: Evaluation and prioritization of risks
Evaluate the risks (severity and likelihood of possible damage …) and sort them by relevance.
Step 3: Preventive action decision
Identify appropriate measures to eliminate or manage risks.
Step 4: Action
Define a plan of priority preventive and safety measures and start by introducing them.
Step 5: Monitoring and updating
Updating risk assessment
The risk assessment needs to be regularly updated to ensure that it is up-to-date when:
- existing preventive protection measures are insufficient or are no longer adequate,
- the data on which the assessment was based is changed,
- there are possibilities and ways to complete or complete the evaluation.
Who can make a risk assessment?
The risk assessment in the company is made by a professional worker in cooperation with the occupational medicine practitioner.
A professional worker is a person who is entrusted with the duties of the employer in the field of occupational health and safety and has passed a professional examination in occupational safety and health.
The tasks of a professional worker are:
- advising the employer in the planning, selection, purchase and maintenance of means of work,
- advice to the employer regarding equipment of workplaces and the working environment,
- coordination of measures to prevent psychosocial risks,
- elaboration of a professional basis for a safety statement (risk assessment),
- conducting periodic investigations of harmfulness in the working environment,
- carrying out periodic inspections and tests of work equipment,
- performing internal control over the implementation of safe work measures,
- making instructions for safe and healthy work,
- monitoring the situation with regard to accidents at work, identifying the causes for them and preparing a report for the employer with proposals for measures,
- preparation and delivery of workers’ training for safe work,
- cooperation with the occupational medicine practitioner.
Who can be a professional associate?
1. An employer may designate one or more professional workers among his employees. The conditions that must be met by professionals depend on the type of activity, the number of employees employed and the degree of risk of accidents at work, occupational diseases and work-related illnesses.
2. As an expert, the employer can also take over the management and assurance of safety at work when he meets the requirements specified inZakonu o varnosti in zdravju pri delu.
3. Where an employer of professional tasks in the field of occupational safety and health can not provide with his employees, he may entrust the performance of all or individual tasks to external professional services authorized to perform professional tasks in the field of occupational safety.
After carrying out a risk assessment for occupational safety and health, a written statement of safety with a risk assessment must be drawn up and adopted, which, in particular, contains the type and scope of the activity, in particular:
- a plan to implement the prescribed requirements and measures,
- plan and procedures for the implementation of measures with immediate threat,
- defining the obligations and responsibilities of the responsible persons of the employer and workers to ensure safety and health at work.
In the safety statement, with a risk assessment, determine the specific health requirements that workers must fulfill for a job, in the work process, or for the use of individual means of work, on the basis of a professional assessment of the occupational medicine practitioner.
Self-employed persons should also assess the risk. If there is a risk of accidents, occupational diseases and work-related illnesses, they must produce a written safety statement with a risk assessment and establish measures to ensure their safety and health at work.
Training for safe and healthy work
The employer must ensure that all his employees who perform work on the basis of an employment contract or on any other legal basis, and those who work for the purpose of training (students, students) with the employer, must be trained for safe work.
When should a worker be trained for safe work?
For safe work, the worker must be trained at:
- the conclusion of an employment relationship,
- allocation to another work,
- introducing new technology and new means of work,
- change in the work process, which may lead to a change in safety at work.
Are you self-employed?
You do not have to complete training in occupational safety and health if you feel it is not necessary.
Preventive medical examination
Preventive medical examinations determine the health and ability of workers to perform certain work in the working environment.
Preventive medical examinations are carried out by an authorized occupational physician.
The employer sends the worker to a previous medical examination:
- before the first job,
- after stopping a particular job at a particular workplace for more than 12 months.
The basis for determining the type, scope, content and deadlines for each preventive health examination is the risk assessment.
Types of preventive medical examinations are:
- prior medical examination,
- targeted periodic preventive medical examination,
- another targeted preventive medical examination.
In the case of increased risk factors in the work environment identified by a risk assessment, a worker is referred to a targeted preventive health check. In some cases, the employer must also refer the worker to other targeted medical examinations.
Are you self-employed?
If you are self-employed, preventive medical examination does not have to be done.
Obligations of the employer
The employer must ensure safety and health at work in accordance with the safety statement with a risk assessment, in particular by:
- he entrusts the performance of tasks of safety at work to a professional worker, and the implementation of health measures to the occupational medicine practitioner,
- informing workers about the introduction of new technologies and means of work, and the risks of accidents, occupational diseases and work-related illnesses, and issues instructions for safe work,
- training workers for safe and healthy work,
- provides workers with personal protective equipment and its use, provided that, despite the safety measures, the means of work and the working environment do not guarantee occupational health and safety,
- by periodically investigating the harmfulness of the working environment, verifies the appropriate working conditions,
- by periodic inspections and tests of work equipment, verifies their compliance with the regulations on safety and health at work,
- provides a safe working environment and the use of safe work equipment.